Francisco's Electric Pajero

Post up a thread for your EV. Progress pics, description and assorted alliteration
francisco.shi
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Re: Francisco's Electric Pajero

Post by francisco.shi »

An update on the project.
I took the donor car to the people that will be doing the interior. They took the carpet out and are getting one ordered.
With the carpet gone it is now time to start adding the wiring that runs under the carpet. So far I have done the two right hand side doors and all is now working. The door modules are receiving messages and acting accordingly.
I need to get some brackets made to hold the boards to the door. In the pictures I have the template I made to get my dimensions checked. I got the real one made out of PCB. They should arrive some time this week.
I still have to do the tailgate, right rear tail light and right headlight. I got the boards for the twilight and headlight drivers but have not had time to assemble them. I should do that this week.
After that I need to do the other side and then it will be ready for the sound proofing. I have put extra branches on the CAN bus wiring for future expansion. It will allow me to add extra controllers without having to rip up the carpet. I have put a branch under the seat to control seat heaters and maybe can add memory to the seats (if I get the time to add encoders to the motors that move the seat).
I am also going to be adding blind spot monitoring, reversing sensors and 360 bird's eye view camera. I don't think it really needs it because the visibility is very good but I figured since i will keep this car for a very long time I may as well add all the good stuff.
Instill haven't found a fwd facing radar for the active cruise control.
There was so much rubbish under the carpet. Also there is almost no sound insulation in the doors and panels. I have high hope that the sound insulation will make the car much more quiet.
Right Front Door.
Right Front Door.
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Right Rear Door
Right Rear Door
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View from the right hand side.
View from the right hand side.
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francisco.shi
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Re: Francisco's Electric Pajero

Post by francisco.shi »

Here is an update.
I finished doing all the internal wiring and took the car to the people doing the sound proofing. I put new speakers and a subwoofer in the back (apparently Pajeros have a subwoofer option in other countries as there is a hole in the steel perfect for a subwoofer). I did some sound measurements before and after. The result is 70dB before and about 60dB after. When i got it back and was driving it back it didn't sound much quieter but the sound meter certainly noticed the difference. All the internal trim is still missing so I expect it to get quieter once I put all that stuff back on.
Here are some pictures of before and after.
Doors before
Doors before
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Doors after
Doors after
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Tail gate before.
Tail gate before.
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Tailgate after.
Tailgate after.
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Inside Before
Inside Before
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Inside after
Inside after
20220927_173833.jpg (2.22 MiB) Viewed 1044 times
francisco.shi
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Re: Francisco's Electric Pajero

Post by francisco.shi »

All the doors, tail gate and lights on the back now run on CAN bus.
I will install new headlights as the old ones are already foggy and starting to crack. The new headlights look much cooler.
New Headlights.
New Headlights.
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The bottom 4 leds are originally white but I am going to modify them so I can have a running indicator (in amber) which will revert to white when the indicator turns off. I am still waiting for the board to hold the Leds.
The control board has 16 outputs of which 8 are high current and 8 are low current (to drive the bottom 4 LEDs.
The headlights will also run on CAN bus.
The white connector is used to drive the bumper bar spot light, the side indicator and has an option for a spot light on the side. I got the idea from a Kona where a side light comes on when you turn the steering wheel. I thought it was a cool idea so I added the hardware in case I decide to implement it.
Headlight assembly.
Headlight assembly.
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Inside Headlight
Inside Headlight
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In the design I have two methods of driving the hardware. One is high level where I send a message for say brake light intensity and every board with a brake light will apply that intensity to the bulb. This makes it easy to drive for normal operation. It also has the ability to control each individual light bulb separately so if I waste some programming time I will be able to have a party mode like Tesla.
I will post a video of the headlight working once I get the LED board hopefully end of this week or early next week.
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Re: Francisco's Electric Pajero

Post by coulomb »

francisco.shi wrote: Tue, 27 Sep 2022, 16:54 The new headlights look much cooler.
Indeed. But they look like they cost a cool penny, too. 'owmuch, if it's not a rude question?
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necrogt4
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Re: Francisco's Electric Pajero

Post by necrogt4 »

That's a truckload of wiring you've gone through. It makes what I've had to do with my project look very minor in comparison 😅

How much time are you putting into the project each week?
francisco.shi
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Re: Francisco's Electric Pajero

Post by francisco.shi »

coulomb wrote: Tue, 27 Sep 2022, 20:44
francisco.shi wrote: Tue, 27 Sep 2022, 16:54 The new headlights look much cooler.
Indeed. But they look like they cost a cool penny, too. 'owmuch, if it's not a rude question?
They were about $250 each which is about the same as aftermarket of the original shape and certainly cheaper than OEM.
I do need to change the headlights regardless because the old ones were already too bad.
It is becoming a restoration project.
Since this car will last a very long time I may as well make it feel like new.
francisco.shi
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Re: Francisco's Electric Pajero

Post by francisco.shi »

necrogt4 wrote: Wed, 28 Sep 2022, 07:15 That's a truckload of wiring you've gone through. It makes what I've had to do with my project look very minor in comparison 😅

How much time are you putting into the project each week?
It varies. Some times nothing some times half of the week. It depends on how busy I get for work. This week and last week I am unlikely to get anything done.
I did the headlights over the weekend. I have had the boards done for a while. I am using the same board for the tail lights. So I got the software bare minimum so I could test that they work and to get the wiring done.

The wiring sounds like a lot but it is much simpler than it looks. Other than the doors all I have had to do is run 4 wires all around the car. I am using a single supply for the logic and separate supplies for the outputs. For example I put power on the brake light circuit and use that for powering the bulbs.
I have done something similar for the doors and tailgate. I just had to find something that had thick enough wire already going there. The big benefit is the fuses and wire are already in place.
If I had no wiring from the start it would have been a bit easier.
I have also run 240v cable to the back so I can have a powered 240 outlet for things like a fridge if I go camping or something.
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Re: Francisco's Electric Pajero

Post by necrogt4 »

With my wiring I've used the original connector between the old engine loom and chassis. That honestly was the most work out of everything so far. But in doing so it makes disconnecting thins much easier later and also means I've been able to use the original fuses also.

Nice (re: 240v output), I take it you're using an inverter of sorts then?
francisco.shi
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Re: Francisco's Electric Pajero

Post by francisco.shi »

I have left the original connectors wherever possible. All the doors have the original connectors and since the only thing I needed was CAN and power I hijacked two pins for CAN and then tried to use other wires that either had power already or could easily be connected to power somewhere else.
I am planning on using an inverter running from the traction battery but I haven't thought of what I am going to use.
Some new onboard chargers are starting to have V2L capability. Unfortunately mine doesn't have it.
I just put the wire because it is easy.
My plan is to use a hybrid inverter that I can connect to the car and use it as a charger or 240v supply and have some solar panels on the trailer.
I can get about 3kw worth of solar on the trailer and unfold it to make a shelter. I can also get about 1.2kw on top of the car and also use it as an awning.
It is still only a thought. I have to do the design to see if it is feasible.
It would allow me to have AC at night and electric cooking as well as a roof to keep the heat out and maybe charge the car but I don't think charging the car will be viable. It will not give me enough range per day to be realistic.
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Re: Francisco's Electric Pajero

Post by T1 Terry »

francisco.shi wrote: Wed, 28 Sep 2022, 15:43 I have left the original connectors wherever possible. All the doors have the original connectors and since the only thing I needed was CAN and power I hijacked two pins for CAN and then tried to use other wires that either had power already or could easily be connected to power somewhere else.
I am planning on using an inverter running from the traction battery but I haven't thought of what I am going to use.
Some new onboard chargers are starting to have V2L capability. Unfortunately mine doesn't have it.
I just put the wire because it is easy.
My plan is to use a hybrid inverter that I can connect to the car and use it as a charger or 240v supply and have some solar panels on the trailer.
I can get about 3kw worth of solar on the trailer and unfold it to make a shelter. I can also get about 1.2kw on top of the car and also use it as an awning.
It is still only a thought. I have to do the design to see if it is feasible.
It would allow me to have AC at night and electric cooking as well as a roof to keep the heat out and maybe charge the car but I don't think charging the car will be viable. It will not give me enough range per day to be realistic.
4.2 kw of solar might require a few days to recharge .... but are you really in that much of a hurry?

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Re: Francisco's Electric Pajero

Post by The Raptor »

Hi francisco.shi

T1Terry, gave me the Link to your conversion, as I have a 2000 Delica Spacegear I Purchased for $500 with a buggered M40MT Diesel Engine, and was looking to simply through an Electric Motor!
I scrolled through all 17 pages, did not read everything, just looked at the images, as I am not that anally retentive.

However, it is mind blowing what you have accomplished, you obviously have multiple Engineering skill sets like Mechanical & Electrical ....and a lot of Non productive time to put towards this project, this country is sadly dying from the lack of people like you.
You should be working for the likes of TESLA !

I am no longer looking to Convert my Beast if it is going to be this complicated, I will stick with my M40MT Diesel & run it on 2 micron filtered WVO, and park the other one for Parts, as I only purchased it as used rear tail lights were going to cost $200. :shock:

One Question; Did you look into Super Capacitor (SC) for Energy Storage ?
As I believe Elon Musk purchased Maxwell, SC Manufacturer to eventually supersede his Lithium-ion Battery contract he has with Panasonic !
16v 500f 2.jpg
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Dream Big, Work Smart, Not necessary Hard, and be kind to your Mother!
francisco.shi
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Re: Francisco's Electric Pajero

Post by francisco.shi »

T1 Terry wrote: Thu, 29 Sep 2022, 10:40
4.2 kw of solar might require a few days to recharge .... but are you really in that much of a hurry?

T1 Terry
I go to some dirt bike races and rides that go for the week end. 2 days would probably give me at least half of a full charge.
I am considering having a generator on the trailer for when I need to go further than where I can get a fast charger.
francisco.shi
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Re: Francisco's Electric Pajero

Post by francisco.shi »

The Raptor wrote: Mon, 03 Oct 2022, 07:33

One Question; Did you look into Super Capacitor (SC) for Energy Storage ?
As I believe Elon Musk purchased Maxwell, SC Manufacturer to eventually supersede his Lithium-ion Battery contract he has with Panasonic !
16v 500f 2.jpg
The energy density of super capacitors is too low.
I wouldn't get much range.
Even NMC are a bit limited. 4WDs are very ineffecient.
Even with an 80kWh battery I don't think I will get a lot of range.
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Re: Francisco's Electric Pajero

Post by necrogt4 »

Do you have a target kWh/100km mileage in mind?
francisco.shi
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Re: Francisco's Electric Pajero

Post by francisco.shi »

I am hoping for less than 30kWh/100km but I don't know how likely it is.
francisco.shi
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Re: Francisco's Electric Pajero

Post by francisco.shi »

I got most of the non essential stuff working on CAN.
Now I am missing the horn, front windscreen wiper and water spray and headlight washer.
Here is a video update on the project.

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Re: Francisco's Electric Pajero

Post by T1 Terry »

Wow, Id be happy if I could just get the lights to all work :lol: But then I do own a '74 VW Kombi and there seems to be an unwritten law that at least 2 lights at any one time won't work ..... so all the rest of the fleet gets the same respect .....

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francisco.shi
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Re: Francisco's Electric Pajero

Post by francisco.shi »

CAN bus is so versatile. It is so easy to just add new features or new hardware without having to mess with the wiring.
My next problem is that I don't have enough buttons in the car to control all the new features.
I can understand why Tesla went with the touch screen and it is very tempting to do the same.
necrogt4
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Re: Francisco's Electric Pajero

Post by necrogt4 »

A quick one on your battery pack Francisco, where do you place your temperature sensors to manage your battery pack?
francisco.shi
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Re: Francisco's Electric Pajero

Post by francisco.shi »

I will probably put 2 or 3 sensors spread out thru each module. Most likely push it between one cell surface and the insulating film.
My assembly has very low thermal resistance between the cells and the cooling pipes so I don't think I need to measure each individual cell.
Even if I didn't run coolant thru the pipes the temperature difference between one end and the other won't vary by much.
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Re: Francisco's Electric Pajero

Post by HeadsUp »

Francisco , I just spent a few hours reading through this entire thread , Superb work by you.

I have one question , Was the phantom DC issue resolved completely ?
Way back about 6 pages or so ago you had both motors set up on the bench as motor generator for testing but without coolant flowing through them and you said the problem "appears to have disappeared".

I just wanted to ask if there could be ground loop issue or noise from the conductivity of the coolant between any of the components ?

Is there a non-electrically conductive coolant that exists ?

Not just to avoid noise when coolant is circulated between components but also in case of leaks , to avoid discharge or arcing.

I note Coulomb asked the same question too around 2 - 3 pages back.

** Disclaimer ** I am not an electrical engineer so pardon moi if my wonderings are incorrect.
francisco.shi
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Re: Francisco's Electric Pajero

Post by francisco.shi »

Yes. The problem was fixed. The problem was that when reading the resolver position there was an error in the decoding. This would produce an error in the position at the same position. When the FOC loop tried to correct for the current error caused by moving the field too fast in the same spot it would produce the equivalent of a DC offset. That is why it would not happen at very low speed.
francisco.shi
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Re: Francisco's Electric Pajero

Post by francisco.shi »

I have not updated for a while. I have been busy with other stuff.
So here is a bit of an update.
I got the new head unit installed and a dash from one of my customers. The dash happens to be a perfect fit for an old LCD screen on the Pajero.
I installed the head so I could install the cameras as I need the head unit to display the video.
The sound is so much better than the original head unit.
Head unit and centre dash.
Head unit and centre dash.
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I also need to convert the original dash to CAN bus.
My first idea was to make a board that would produce all the correct outputs to drive the original wires that come from the car.
I made a board and got everything to work except for the fuel gauge. The spedo odometer and Tacho all work fine. The problem is that the original dash has computer that controls the needle and it does some filtering depending on vehicle speed and who knows what else. The end result is that the fuel gauge doesn't update properly.
Original idea (not so good)
Original idea (not so good)
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Then I tried to get all the indicators to work and while I was testing I found out that everything uses light bulbs. In fact it consumes about 2A just to run all the bulbs.

So I thought the best is to replace all the bulbs with LEDs so I made a new board.
Original warning light board.
Original warning light board.
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New board compared to old board.
New board compared to old board.
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Including the back of the dash which also has light bulbs.
Back of dash
Back of dash
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I haven't done the board for the back of the dash yet but I connected the new warning light board to the old board so I could drive it and the result is so much nicer.
New warning light board installed.
New warning light board installed.
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I also found out that driving the needles is not as simpie as just applying some voltage to them. The needles are a 2ph brushless motor 😓 so it will need a bit more work than I was hoping. Since I am driving the needles my self I can make the spedo read the correct speed but have a different value sent to the odometer so I guess have to get ready for the EV tax.
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